Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables, legumes/pulses, whole grains, nuts, fructose
Medium GI 56–69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potato, sucrose, baked potatoes
High GI 70 and above white bread, most white rices, corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose

Sugars And Sugar Alcohols

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Glycemic Index Search

Use the above search utility to search for foods either by name or by GI value.

22 results found.

International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 20021

Description G.I.
(Glucose = 100)2
G.I.
(Bread = 100)2
Subjects
(Type and Number)
Reference Food and Time Period Serving Size
grams
Available Carbohydrate Content
grams / serving
Glycemic Load3
(per serving)
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With Gum Fiber »
100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum4
85 121 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2.5 hours5 10 10 9
Sharma RD.
Hypoglycemic effect of gum acacia in healthy human subjects.
Nutr Res 1985; 5:1437−41.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With American Ginseng (panax Quinquefolius L.) »
25 g glucose (Glucodex solution) with 3 g dried ginseng6
Rougier Inc | Chambly, Quebec | Canada
78 112 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 10 10 8
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al.
American ginseng (Panax quinqefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009−13.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Litesse »
25 g Litesse II, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol7
Danisco Sweeteners | Redhill, Surrey | UK
7 ± 2 5 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 10 10 1
Unpublished Observations8
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Maltitol-based Sweeteners Or Bulking Agents »
25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol)
Cerestar | Vilvoorde | Belgium
73 ± 29 104 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 10 10 7
Pelletier X, Hanesse B, Bornet F, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy volunteers upon ingestion of maltitol and hydrogenated glucose syrups.
Diabetes Metab 1994; 20:291−6.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Maltitol-based Sweeteners Or Bulking Agents (cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium) »
25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol)
30 ± 12 43 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 10 10 3
Pelletier X, Hanesse B, Bornet F, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy volunteers upon ingestion of maltitol and hydrogenated glucose syrups.
Diabetes Metab 1994; 20:291−6.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Maltitol-based Sweeteners Or Bulking Agents »
25 g Maltidex 100 (>72% maltitol)
Cerestar | Vilvoorde | Belgium
44 ± 11 63 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 10 10 4
Pelletier X, Hanesse B, Bornet F, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy volunteers upon ingestion of maltitol and hydrogenated glucose syrups.
Diabetes Metab 1994; 20:291−6.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Maltitol-based Sweeteners Or Bulking Agents »
25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol)
Cerestar | Vilvoorde | Belgium
89 ± 28 127 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 10 10 9
Pelletier X, Hanesse B, Bornet F, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy volunteers upon ingestion of maltitol and hydrogenated glucose syrups.
Diabetes Metab 1994; 20:291−6.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With Gum Fiber »
46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange fiber extract (total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g)
FITA | Chatswood | Australia
79 ± 3 113 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 10 8 6
Unpublished Observations8
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With Gum Fiber »
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g guar gum
62 88 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 10 10 6
Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al.
Oat gum lowers glucose and insulin after an oral glucose load.
Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:1425−30.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With Gum Fiber »
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g oat gum (78% oat ß-glucan)
57 82 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 10 10 6
Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al.
Oat gum lowers glucose and insulin after an oral glucose load.
Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:1425−30.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols »
50 g maltose
105 ± 12 150 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 10 10 11
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Fructose
  • 25-g portion
    | Canada
11 16 ± 5 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 50-g portion
12 16 ± 6 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 50-g portion
20 ± 5 29 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • 50-g portion
21 30 Type 2 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified
Schauberger G, Brinck UC, Guldner G, Spaethe R, Niklas L, Otto H.
Exchange of carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose.
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Josse RG, Wong GS. The glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods.
Lancet 1984;1:388−91.
  • 50-g portion
    | USA
24 34 Type 2 Diabetic » 7 Glucose » 5 hours10
Gannon MC, Nuttal FQ, Krezowski PA, Billington CJ, Parker S.
The serum insulin and plasma glucose response to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non−insulin−dependent) diabetic patients.
Diabetologia 1986; 29:784−91.
  • 25-g portion fed with oats
25 35 ± 12 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Wong GS, Kenshole A, et al.
Lactose in the diabetic diet: a comparison with other carbohydrates.
Nutr Res 1985; 5:1335−45.
Mean of 6 studies
19 ± 2 27 ± 4 10 10 2
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With American Ginseng (panax Quinquefolius L.) » Glucodex
  • 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min after 3 g dried ginseng
80 115 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Glucose » 2 hours
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al.
American ginseng (Panax quinqefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009−13.
  • 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 3 g dried ginseng
76 109 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 1.5 hours
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al.
American ginseng (Panax quinqefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009−13.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
78 ± 2 112 ± 3 10 10 8
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose
  • 50-g portion (dextrose)
85 121 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Bread » 3 hours
Crapo PA, Insel J, Sperling M, Kolterman OG.
Comparison of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in non−insulin−dependent diabetic patients.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:184−90.
  • 25-g portion, fed with oats
92 131 ± 13 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Wong GS, Kenshole A, et al.
Lactose in the diabetic diet: a comparison with other carbohydrates.
Nutr Res 1985; 5:1335−45.
  • 50-g portion
93 132 Type 2 Diabetic » 5
Impaired Glucose Tolerance » 612
Bread » 3 hours
Crapo PA, Kolterman OG, Waldeck N, Reaven GM, Olefsky JM.
Postprandial hormonal responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1723−8.
  • 50-g portion (dextrose)
96 137 Healthy » 16 Bread » 3 hours
Crapo PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J.
Postprandial plasma−glucose and insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes 1977; 26:1178−83.
  • 50-g portion
96 137 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified
Otto H, Niklas L.
Differences d’action sur la glycemie d’aliments contenant des hydrated de carbone: consequences pour le traitment dietetique du diabete sucre. (Differences in the action of foods containing carbohydrates on blood glucose levels: implications for the dietetic treatment of diabetes mellitus.)
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. Starchy foods and glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1988; 11:149−59.
  • 50-g portion
    | Canada
96 137 ± 22 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 50-g portion
100 143 Healthy » 35 Glucose » 2 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • 50-g portion (Glucodin glucose tablets)
    | Australia
102 ± 9 146 Healthy » 7 Bread » 2 hours
Brand Miller J, Pang E, Broomhead L.
The glycaemic index of foods containing sugars: comparison of foods with naturally occurring v. added sugars.
Br J Nutr 1995; 73:613−23.
  • 25-g portion
103 147 ± 18 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 50-g portion (dextrose)
111 158 Healthy » 6 Wheat » 2 hours
Dilwari JB, Kamath PS, Batta RP, Mukewar S, Raghavan S.
Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietnum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:2450−3.
  • 100-g portion
114 163 ± 28 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
Mean of 11 studies
99 ± 3 141 ± 4 10 10 10
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Glucose » Glucose Consumed With A Mixed Meal » Glucose consumed with a mixed meal
  • 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese and 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate)
55 79 Type 2 Diabetic » 16 (sulfonylureas not taken) Glucose » 3 hours13
Le Floch JP, Baudin E, Escuyer P,Wirquin E, Nillus P, Perlemuter L.
Influence of non−carbohydrate foods on glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrates of different glycaemic index in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabet Med 1992; 9:44−8.
  • 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese and 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate)
57 81 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 (sulfonylureas taken) Glucose » 3 hours13
Le Floch JP, Baudin E, Escuyer P,Wirquin E, Nillus P, Perlemuter L.
Influence of non−carbohydrate foods on glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrates of different glycaemic index in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabet Med 1992; 9:44−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
56 ± 1 80 ± 1 250 35 20
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Honey
  • Locust honey
32 46 Type 2 Diabetic » 32 Glucose » 2 hours 25 21 7
Ionescu−Tirgoviste C, Popa E, Sintu E, Mihalache N, et al.
Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to various carbohydrates in type 2 (non−insulin−dependent) diabetes.
Diabetologia 1983; 24:80−4.
  • Yellow box, 46% fructose
35 ± 4 50 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 25 18 6
Unpublished Observations8
  • Stringy bark, 52% fructose
44 ± 4 63 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 25 21 9
Unpublished Observations8
  • Red gum, 35% fructose
46 ± 3 66 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 25 18 8
Unpublished Observations8
  • Iron bark, 34% fructose
48 ± 3 69 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 25 15 7
Unpublished Observations8
  • Yapunya, 42% fructose
52 ± 5 74 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 25 17 9
Unpublished Observations8
  • Pure
    | Australia
58 ± 6 83 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 25 21 12
Unpublished Observations8
  • Commercial blend, 38% fructose
    | Australia
62 ± 3 89 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 25 18 11
Unpublished Observations8
  • Salvation Jane, 32% fructose
64 ± 5 91 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 25 15 10
Unpublished Observations8
  • Commercial blend, 28% fructose
    | Australia
72 ± 6 103 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 25 13 9
Unpublished Observations8
  • Honey, Non Specific
87 ± 8 124 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 25 21 18
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
Mean of 11 types of honey
55 ± 5 78 ± 7 25 18 10
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Sugar Alcohols And Sugar-replacement Compounds » Lactitol
  • 25 g lactitol
–1 ± 7 –1 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours
Natah SS, Hussien KR, Tuominen JA, Koivisto VA.
Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men.
Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65:947−50.
  • 25 g lactitol MC
    | UK
3 ± 1 4 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations8
Mean of 2 studies
2 ± 3 3 ± 4 10 10 0
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Lactose
  • 50 g lactose
    | USA
43 61 Type 2 Diabetic » 7 Glucose » 5 hours10
Gannon MC, Nuttal FQ, Krezowski PA, Billington CJ, Parker S.
The serum insulin and plasma glucose response to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non−insulin−dependent) diabetic patients.
Diabetologia 1986; 29:784−91.
  • 25 g lactose
    | UK
48 68 ± 8 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours
Östman EM, Elmståhl HGM, Björck IME.
Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products.
Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:96−100.
  • 25 g lactose
48 69 ± 10 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Wong GS, Kenshole A, et al.
Lactose in the diabetic diet: a comparison with other carbohydrates.
Nutr Res 1985; 5:1335−45.
Mean of 3 studies
46 ± 2 66 ± 3 10 10 5
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Blue Agave Cactus Nectar, High-fructose »
Organic agave cactus nectar, light, 90% fructose9
Western Commerce Corp | City of Industry,California | USA
11 ± 1 16 ± 1 Healthy » 9 Bread » 2 hours 10 8 1
Unpublished Observations8
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Blue Agave Cactus Nectar, High-fructose »
Organic agave cactus nectar, light, 97% fructose9
Western Commerce Corp | City of Industry,California | USA
10 ± 1 14 ± 1 Healthy » 9 Bread » 2 hours 10 8 1
Unpublished Observations8
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Sucrose
58 83 Type 2 Diabetic » 7 Glucose » 5 hours10
Gannon MC, Nuttal FQ, Krezowski PA, Billington CJ, Parker S.
The serum insulin and plasma glucose response to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non−insulin−dependent) diabetic patients.
Diabetologia 1986; 29:784−91.
58 83 ± 15 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 50 g sucrose
59 ± 10 84 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • 50 g sucrose
60 86 Type 2 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified
Schauberger G, Brinck UC, Guldner G, Spaethe R, Niklas L, Otto H.
Exchange of carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose.
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Josse RG, Wong GS. The glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods.
Lancet 1984;1:388−91.
60 86 ± 9 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Lee BM, Wolever TMS.
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:924−8.
  • 25 g sucrose
64 91 ± 18 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Wong GS, Kenshole A, et al.
Lactose in the diabetic diet: a comparison with other carbohydrates.
Nutr Res 1985; 5:1335−45.
  • 50 g sucrose
65 ± 9 93 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
65 94 ± 14 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Hertzler S.
Glycemic index of “energy” snack bars in normal volunteers.
J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 100:97−100.
  • 30 g sucrose
82 117 ± 22 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 2 hours
Buclossi A, Conti A, Lombardo S, et al.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to different carbohydrates in type II (NIDDM) diabetic patients.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 1990; 3:143−51.
  • 25 g sucrose
110 ± 21 157 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours
Pelletier X, Hanesse B, Bornet F, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy volunteers upon ingestion of maltitol and hydrogenated glucose syrups.
Diabetes Metab 1994; 20:291−6.
Mean of 10 studies
68 ± 5 97 ± 7 10 10 7
Sugars And Sugar Alcohols » Xylitol
7 ± 7 10 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours
Natah SS, Hussien KR, Tuominen JA, Koivisto VA.
Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men.
Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65:947−50.
8 ± 2 12 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations8
Mean of 2 studies
Danisco Sweeteners | Redhill, Surrey
8 ± 1 11 ± 1 10 10 1
  1. NS (Non Specific), not specified; type 1 and type 2, subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; AUC (Area Under the Curve). Serving sizes in grams unless specified otherwise.
  2. x ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean). Two GI vlaues are shown for each food−one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.
  3. Estimated by multiplying the food’s listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.
  4. V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company, Le Plessis-Robinson, France), unpublished observations, 1996–2000.
  5. Both the test food and the reference food contained 100 g carbohydrate.
  6. GI calculated from the AUC for glucose.
  7. Total weight of the test food was 25 g, whereas reference food contained 25 g available carbohydrate. The carbohydrate content of the test food was assumed to be 100% available, which may be an overestimate.
  8. Human Nutrition Unit (Sydney University, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995–2002.
  9. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate.
  10. AUC calculated as the area above fasting to 3 h only.
  11. GI for sugars calculated from the glycemic response for a meal of sugar and rolled oats minus the glycemic response for the oats alone.
  12. Impaired glucose tolerance.
  13. AUC measured over 3 h for only 5 time points (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min).
  14. Both the test food and the reference food contained 30 g carbohydrate.
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