Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables, legumes/pulses, whole grains, nuts, fructose
Medium GI 56–69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potato, sucrose, baked potatoes
High GI 70 and above white bread, most white rices, corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose

Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups

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Glycemic Index Search

Use the above search utility to search for foods either by name or by GI value.

123 results found.

International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 20021

Description G.I.
(Glucose = 100)2
G.I.
(Bread = 100)2
Subjects
(Type and Number)
Reference Food and Time Period Serving Size
grams
Available Carbohydrate Content
grams / serving
Glycemic Load3
(per serving)
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Acorns, stewed with venison4
Quercus emoryi
16 ± 1 23 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 100 6 1
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian »
Amaranth - popped, eaten with milk and nonnutritive sweetener (Amaranthus esculentum)
India
97 ± 19 139 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours5 30 19 18
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Arepa » made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour6, 7
44 63 Healthy » 9 Arepa » 2 hours8 100 25 11
Granfeldt Y, Drews A, Björck I.
Arepas made from high amylose corn flour produce favorably low glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:459−65.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Arepa » made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour (25% amylose)6, 7
81 116 Healthy » 9 Arepa » 2 hours8 100 43 35
Granfeldt Y, Drews A, Björck I.
Arepas made from high amylose corn flour produce favorably low glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:459−65.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour
Mexico
72 102 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 4 hours9 100 43 31
Semprún−Fereira M, Ryder E, Morales LM, Gómez ME, Raleigh X.
Glycemic index and insulin response to the ingestion of precooked corn flour in the form of “arepa” in healthy individuals.
Invest Clin 1994; 35:131−42.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian » Bajra
  • Bajra, eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour (Penniseteum typhoideum)
55 ± 13 79 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
  • Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum)
49 70 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum)
67 96 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 3 studies
57 ± 5 82 ± 8 75 (dry) 50 29
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian »
Banana, Nendra variety, unripe, steamed 1 h10 (Musa sapientum)
70 ± 11 100 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 120 45 31
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian » Barley
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
48 69 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
37 53 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
43 ± 6 61 ± 8 150 37 16
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian »
Bengal gram dhal, chickpea
11 16 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 36 4
Dilwari JB, Kamath PS, Batta RP, Mukewar S, Raghavan S.
Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietnum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:2450−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Black beans
30 43 ± 17 Type 2 Diabetic » 27
healthy » 21
Bread » 3 hours 150 23 7
Frati−Munari AC, Roca−Vides RA, Lopez−Perez RJ, de Vivero I, Ruiz−Velazco M.
The glycaemic index of some foods common in Mexico.
Gac Med Mex 1991; 127:163−70.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Asian Indian »
Black gram, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h10 (Phaseolus mungo)
43 ± 10 61 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 150 18 8
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Blackbean seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked4
Castanospermum australe
8 11 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 50 9 1
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pacific Islanders »
Breadfruit4
Artocarpus altilis | Australia
68 97 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 120 27 18
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Lion Foods | Bangkok | Thailand
86 ± 10 123 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 150 43 37
Chan HMS, Brand−Miller JC, Holt SHA, Wilson D, Rozman M, Petocz P.
The glycaemic index values of Vietnamese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55:1076−83.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Brown beans
South Africa
24 ± 8 34 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 25 6
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Brown beans
38 54 ± 15 Type 2 Diabetic » 27
healthy » 21
Bread » 3 hours 150 25 9
Frati−Munari AC, Roca−Vides RA, Lopez−Perez RJ, de Vivero I, Ruiz−Velazco M.
The glycaemic index of some foods common in Mexico.
Gac Med Mex 1991; 127:163−70.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Bunya tree nut, baked 10 min4
Araucaria bidwillii
47 67 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 50 16 7
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Bush honey, sugar bag4
43 61 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 30 25 11
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Butter rice, warm white rice and butter
Japan
79 113 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 51 40
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Cactus jam
Stenocereus thurberi
91 130 ± 19 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 20 18
Payne Y.
The glycaemic index of six foods traditionally consumed by the Pima Indian tribe. Masters of nutrition and dietetics research essays. Vol 3, section 12.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1992.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Cassava, boiled, with salt
Kenya
46 65 ± 12 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 2.5 hours 100 27 12
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti » Chapatti
  • Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram dhal
81 ± 4 116 Type 2 Diabetic » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 200 50 41
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram dhal
44 ± 3 63 Healthy » 11 Glucose » 2 hours 200 50 22
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
63 ± 19 90 ± 27 200 50 32
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti » Chapatti maize
  • Chapatti maize
64 92 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Chapatti maize
59 85 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
62 ± 3 89 ± 4
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
66 ± 10 94 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours5 60 30 20
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
76 ± 20 108 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours5 60 30 23
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, baisen
27 39 Type 2 Diabetic » 11 Wheat chapatti » 3 hours13
Rahman M, Malik MA, Mubarak SA.
Glycaemic index of Pakistani staple foods in mixed meals for diabetics.
J Pak Med Assoc 1992; 42:60−2.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti » Chapatti, bajra
  • Chapatti, bajra
67 96 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Chapatti, bajra
49 70 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
58 ± 9 83 ± 13
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti » Chapatti, barley
  • Chapatti, barley
37 53 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Chapatti, barley
48 69 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
42 ± 5 61 ± 8
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) (Phaseolus aconitifolius and Cicer arietinum)
66 ± 9 94 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 60 38 25
Sumathi A, Vishwanatha S, Malleshi NG, Rao SV.
Glycemic response to malted, popped and roller dried wheat−legume based foods in normal subjects.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 1997; 48:103−7.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) (Phaseolus aconitifolius and Cicer arietinum)
60 ± 9 85 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 60 38 23
Sumathi A, Vishwanatha S, Malleshi NG, Rao SV.
Glycemic response to malted, popped and roller dried wheat−legume based foods in normal subjects.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 1997; 48:103−7.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean and bengal gram
40 ± 8 58 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 60 36 14
Sumathi A, Vishwanatha S, Malleshi NG, Rao SV.
Glycemic response to malted, popped and roller dried wheat−legume based foods in normal subjects.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 1997; 48:103−7.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chapatti »
Chapatti, wheat, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
66 ± 9 94 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours5 60 32 21
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Cheeky yam, peeled, sliced, soaked 2 d, baked 15 min4
Dioscorea bulbifera
34 49 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 150 36 12
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chella »
Cheela, bengal gram
Cicer arietinum
42 ± 1 60 Healthy » 15 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 28 12
Batra M, Sharma S, Seth V.
The glycaemic index of fermented and non−fermented legume based snack foods.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1994; 3:151−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chella »
Cheela, bengal gram, fermented batter
Cicer arietinum
36 ± 1 51 Healthy » 15 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 28 10
Batra M, Sharma S, Seth V.
The glycaemic index of fermented and non−fermented legume based snack foods.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1994; 3:151−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chella »
Cheela, green gram
Phaseolus aureus
45 ± 1 64 Healthy » 15 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 26 12
Batra M, Sharma S, Seth V.
The glycaemic index of fermented and non−fermented legume based snack foods.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1994; 3:151−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Chella »
Cheela, green gram, fermented batter
Phaseolus aureus
38 ± 1 54 Healthy » 15 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 26 10
Batra M, Sharma S, Seth V.
The glycaemic index of fermented and non−fermented legume based snack foods.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1994; 3:151−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Corn hominy4
Zea mays
40 ± 5 57 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 12
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Corn tortilla
Mexico
52 74 ± 7 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3.5 hours 50 24 12
Noriega E, Rivera L, Peralta E.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of Mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000; 13:13−9
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato and lettuce
Mexico
78 111 ± 12 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3.5 hours 100 15 11
Noriega E, Rivera L, Peralta E.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of Mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000; 13:13−9
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce
Mexico
39 56 ± 8 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3.5 hours 100 23 9
Noriega E, Rivera L, Peralta E.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of Mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000; 13:13−9
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Curry rice
Japan
67 96 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 61 41
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Curry rice with cheese
Japan
55 79 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 49 27
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Cycad palm seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked4
Macrozamia communis
40 ± 2 57 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 50 25 10
Fitz−Henry A. In vitro and in vivo rates of carbohydrate digestion in Aboriginal bushfoods and contemporary Western foods. BSc thesis (Honours). Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1982
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Desert oak, seed bread4
Acacia coriacea
46 66 Healthy » 6 Bread » 3 hours 75 24 11
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Dhokla
  • Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina
35 ± 4 50 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
  • Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina
31 ± 6 44 Type 2 Diabetic » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
33 ± 2 47 ± 3 100 20 6
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Dosai
  • Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney
77 ± 3 110 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 150 39 30
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney
55 ± 2 79 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 39 22
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
66 ± 11 95 ± 16 150 39 26
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Fruit Leather
Stenocereus thurberi
70 100 ± 19 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 24 17
Payne Y.
The glycaemic index of six foods traditionally consumed by the Pima Indian tribe. Masters of nutrition and dietetics research essays. Vol 3, section 12.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1992.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Ga kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal15 (Zea mays)
Ghana
12 ± 1 17 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 13 7
Brakohiapa LA, Quayo KE, Amoah AGB, et al.
Blood glucose responses to mixed Ghanaian diets in healthy adult males.
West Afr J Med 1997; 16:170−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Gari, roasted cassava dough15 (Manihot utilissima)
Ghana
56 ± 3 80 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours14 100 27 15
Brakohiapa LA, Quayo KE, Amoah AGB, et al.
Blood glucose responses to mixed Ghanaian diets in healthy adult males.
West Afr J Med 1997; 16:170−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Glutinous rice
  • Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
    | Thailand
98 ± 7 140 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 150 32 31
Chan HMS, Brand−Miller JC, Holt SHA, Wilson D, Rozman M, Petocz P.
The glycaemic index values of Vietnamese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55:1076−83.
  • Glutinous rice Non Specific
86 123 Healthy » 6 Rice » 2 hours12 150 65 55
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 2 studies
92 ± 6 132 ± 9 150 48 44
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Gram dhal
South Africa
5 ± 3 7 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 29 1
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pacific Islanders » Banana/plantain, Green »
Green banana, boiled
New Zealand
38 ± 10 54 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 120 21 8
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Gram »
Green gram dhal with varagu, pressure cooked
Paspalum scorbiculatum
78 ± 12 111 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 78 (dry) 50 39
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Gram »
Green gram, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h10
Phaseolus aureus
38 ± 14 54 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 150 17 6
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Gram »
Green gram, whole with varagu, pressure cooked
Paspalum scorbiculatum
57 ± 6 81 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 80 (dry) 50 29
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Gram »
Horse gram soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h10
Dolichos biflorus
51 ± 11 73 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 150 29 15
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Hummus (chickpea salad dip)
6 ± 4 9 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 30 5 0
Mehio Z, Hwalla Baba N, Habbal Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses of normal subjects to selected meals commonly consumed in the Middle East.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:275−86.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Idli
  • Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented and steamed) with chutney
77 ± 2 110 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 250 52 40
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented and steamed) with chutney
60 ± 2 86 Healthy » 11 Glucose » 2 hours 250 52 31
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
69 ± 9 98 ± 12 250 52 36
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Jowar, roasted bread made from Jowar flour
Sorghum vulgare
77 ± 8 110 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 70 (dry) 50 39
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul)
61 ± 16 87 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 120 15 9
Mehio Z, Hwalla Baba N, Habbal Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses of normal subjects to selected meals commonly consumed in the Middle East.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:275−86.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Laddu
  • Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder and fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup
24 ± 4 34 Healthy » 5 females Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
  • Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder and fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup
29 ± 4 41 Type 2 Diabetic » 5 males Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
27 ± 3 38 ± 4 50 31 8
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hummus, falafel and tabbouleh
86 ± 12 123 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 120 45 39
Vorster HH, van Tonder, Kotzé JP, Walker ARP.
Effects of graded sucrose additions on taste preference, acceptability, glycemic index and insulin response to butter beans.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45:575−9.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice
Australia
60 ± 10 86 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 360 51 31
Chew I, Brand−Miller JC, Thorburn A, Truswell AS.
Application of glycemic index to mixed meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47:53−6.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Lima beans broth4
Phaseolus lunatus
36 ± 3 51 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 250 mL 32 12
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
M'fino or Morogo, wild greens
South Africa
68 ± 8 97 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 120 50 34
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Maize meal porridge or gruel
Kenya
109 156 ± 15 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 2.5 hours 50 (dry) 38 41
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Maize meal porridge, refined, maize-meal:water (1:3)
South Africa
74 ± 7 106 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 40 30
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Maize meal porridge, unrefined, maize meal:water (1:3)
South Africa
71 ± 6 101 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 36 25
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Majadra (Syrian, lentils and rice)
Syria
24 ± 5 34 Type 2 Diabetic » 9
healthy » 9
Glucose » 3 hours16 250 41 10
Indar−Brown K, Norenberg C, Madar Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses after ingestion of ethnic foods by NIDDM and healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55:89−95.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Israeli » Melawach »
Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) fiber (soluble)
Ceratonia siliqua
31 ± 6 44 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Glucose » 3 hours16 130 53 16
Feldman N, Norenberg C, Voet H, et al.
Enrichment of an Israeli ethnic food with fibres and their effects on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in subjects with non−insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Br J Nutr 1995; 74:681−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Israeli » Melawach »
Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber
Lupinus albus
72 ± 10 103 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Glucose » 3 hours16 130 53 38
Feldman N, Norenberg C, Voet H, et al.
Enrichment of an Israeli ethnic food with fibres and their effects on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in subjects with non−insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Br J Nutr 1995; 74:681−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Israeli » Melawach »
Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble)
59 ± 10 84 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Glucose » 3 hours16 130 53 31
Feldman N, Norenberg C, Voet H, et al.
Enrichment of an Israeli ethnic food with fibres and their effects on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in subjects with non−insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Br J Nutr 1995; 74:681−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Israeli » Melawach » Melawach (dough made from white-wheat flour and butter, fried)
  • Melawach
61 ± 10 87 Type 2 Diabetic » 9
healthy » 9
Glucose » 3 hours16
Indar−Brown K, Norenberg C, Madar Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses after ingestion of ethnic foods by NIDDM and healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55:89−95.
  • Melawach
71 ± 7 101 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Glucose » 3 hours16
Feldman N, Norenberg C, Voet H, et al.
Enrichment of an Israeli ethnic food with fibres and their effects on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in subjects with non−insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Br J Nutr 1995; 74:681−8.
Mean of 2 studies
66 ± 5 94 ± 7 115 53 35
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Mesquite cakes4
Prosopis velutina
25 ± 3 36 Healthy » 4 Glucose » 2 hours 60 4 1
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Millet flour porridge or gruel
Kenya
107 153 ± 14 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 2.5 hours
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Millet/ragi » Millet/Ragi
  • Millet/Ragi
84 120 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Glucose » 2 hours 70 (dry) 50 42
Kavita MS, Prema L.
Glycaemic response to selected cereal−based South Indian meals in non−insulin dependent diabetics.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:287−94.
  • Millet/Ragi flour eaten as roasted bread
104 ± 13 149 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 70 (dry) 50 52
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
Mean of 2 studies
94 ± 10 135 ± 15
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Millet/ragi »
Millet/Ragi, dehusked, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h10
Eleucine coracana
68 ± 10 97 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 150 34 23
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Moroccan couscous (stew of semolina, chickpeas and vegetables)
58 ± 9 83 Type 2 Diabetic » 8
healthy » 8
Glucose » 3 hours 250 29 17
Indar−Brown K, Norenberg C, Madar Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses after ingestion of ethnic foods by NIDDM and healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55:89−95.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Australian Aboriginal »
Mulga seed, roasted, wet ground to paste4
Acacia aneura
8 11 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 50 17 1
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Nopal (prickly pear cactus)
7 10 ± 17 Type 2 Diabetic » 27
healthy » 21
Bread » 3 hours 100 6 0
Frati−Munari AC, Roca−Vides RA, Lopez−Perez RJ, de Vivero I, Ruiz−Velazco M.
The glycaemic index of some foods common in Mexico.
Gac Med Mex 1991; 127:163−70.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Pinto beans, boiled in salted water
14 19 ± 3 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3.5 hours 150 25 4
Noriega E, Rivera L, Peralta E.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of Mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000; 13:13−9
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Pongal
  • Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)
90 ± 3 129 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)
45 ± 2 64 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
68 ± 23 97 ± 33 250 52 35
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Poori
  • Poori (deep-fried wheat-flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)
82 ± 2 117 Type 2 Diabetic » 8 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Poori (deep-fried wheat-flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)
57 ± 1 81 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
70 ± 13 99 ± 18 150 41 28
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Rajmah
Phaseolus vulgaris
19 27 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 6
Dilwari JB, Kamath PS, Batta RP, Mukewar S, Raghavan S.
Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietnum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:2450−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Rice (Oryza sativa) boiled served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
Oryza sativa
69 ± 15 99 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours5 150 38 26
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Semolina »
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum)
Triticum aestivum and Cicer arietum
54 ± 7 77 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 2 hours14 71 (dry) 50 27
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Semolina »
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo)
Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo
46 ± 12 66 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 2 hours14 71 (dry) 50 23
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Semolina »
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus)
Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus aureus
62 ± 20 89 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 2 hours14 71 (dry) 50 31
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Semolina »
Semolina, preroasted
Triticum aestivum
76 ± 6 109 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 2 hours14 67 (dry) 50 38
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Semolina »
Semolina, steamed
Triticum aestivum
55 ± 9 79 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 2 hours14 67 (dry) 50 28
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Stuffed grapevine leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce)
30 ± 11 43 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 100 15 5
Mehio Z, Hwalla Baba N, Habbal Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses of normal subjects to selected meals commonly consumed in the Middle East.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:275−86.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Sushi
  • Sushi, salmon
    | Australia
48 ± 8 69 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 100 36 17
Unpublished Observations17
  • Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice
55 79 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12 100 37 20
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 2 studies
52 ± 4 74 ± 5 100 37 19
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pacific Islanders » Sweet potato
  • Sweet potato
44 63 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11 150 25 11
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
  • Sweet potato, kumara
77 ± 12 110 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 150 25 19
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Sweet potato, kumara
78 ± 6 111 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 150 25 20
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 3 studies
66 ± 11 95 ± 16 150 28 17
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Tapioca, steamed 1 h10
Manihot utilissima
70 ± 10 100 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours5 250 18 12
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Tarhana soup (wheat flour, yogurt, tomato and green pepper)
20 29 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pacific Islanders » Taro
  • Taro, peeled, boiled
54 77 Healthy » 7 Potato » 3 hours11
Thorburn A.
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate in Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and Western Foods. PhD thesis.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1986.
  • Taro, peeled, boiled
56 ± 12 80 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 2 studies
55 ± 1 79 ± 2 150 8 4
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Tortilla
Zea mays and Olneya tesota
38 54 ± 9 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 60 25 9
Payne Y.
The glycaemic index of six foods traditionally consumed by the Pima Indian tribe. Masters of nutrition and dietetics research essays. Vol 3, section 12.
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia, 1992.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Turkish bread, white-wheat flour
Turkey
87 124 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 30 17 15
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Turkish bread, whole wheat
Turkey
49 70 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 30 16 8
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Arabic And Turkish »
Turkish noodle soup
Turkey
1 1 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 250 mL 9 0
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Udon noodles
  • Udon noodles, fresh, reheated
    | Australia
62 ± 8 89 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 180 48 30
Unpublished Observations17
  • Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried bean curd
48 69 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12 180 47 23
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 2 studies
55 ± 7 79 ± 10 180 48 26
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Unripe plantain15 (Musa paradisiaca)
Ghana
40 ± 4 57 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours14 120 (raw) 34 13
Brakohiapa LA, Quayo KE, Amoah AGB, et al.
Blood glucose responses to mixed Ghanaian diets in healthy adult males.
West Afr J Med 1997; 16:170−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Upittu
  • Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)
67 ± 3 96 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
  • Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)
69 ± 4 99 Healthy » 11 Glucose » 2 hours
Urooj A, Puttaraj S.
Glycaemic responses to cereal−based Indian food preparations in patients with non−insulin−dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Br J Nutr 2000; 83:483−8.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
68 ± 1 98 ± 2 150 42 28
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » Uppuma kedgeree
  • Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water)
18 ± 3 25 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
  • Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water)
19 ± 3 28 Type 2 Diabetic » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S.
Development of food products based on millets, legumes, and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet.
Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51:409−14.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
18 ± 1 27 ± 2 150 33 6
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
Varagu, pressure cooked 15 lb 12–15 min
Paspalum scorbiculatum
68 ± 8 97 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 76 (dry) 50 34
Mani UV, Prabhu SS, Damie SS, Mani I.
Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in Western India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1993; 2:111−4.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » South American »
Wheat tortilla
Mexico
30 43 ± 7 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3.5 hours 50 26 8
Noriega E, Rivera L, Peralta E.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of Mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000; 13:13−9
Fruit And Fruit Products » Grapes »
Grapes, black, Waltham Cross
Australia
59 84 Healthy » 11 Bread » 2 hours 120 18 11
Unpublished Observations17
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » White rice and nonsugar yogurt
  • White rice and nonsugar yogurt eaten before rice
59 84 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
  • White rice and nonsugar yogurt eaten together
58 83 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 2 types
59 ± 1 84 ± 1 150 32 19
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce
Japan
72 103 Healthy » 6 Rice » 2 hours12 150 36 26
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with dried fish strip (okaka)
Japan
79 113 Healthy » 6 Rice » 2 hours12 150 50 40
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with fermented soybean (natto)
Japan
56 80 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 43 24
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup)
Japan
61 87 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 47 29
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with low-fat milk
Japan
69 99 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12 300 47 32
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber
  • White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice)
63 90 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
  • White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten with rice)
61 87 Healthy » 11 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 2 types
62 ± 1 89 ± 2 150 43 27
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with roasted ground soybean
Japan
56 80 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12 150 51 29
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with salted dried plum(umeboshi)
Japan
80 114 Healthy » 10 Rice » 2 hours12 150 49 39
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian »
White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae
Japan
77 110 Healthy » 7 Rice » 2 hours12 150 51 39
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Asian » White rice, dried sea algae and milk
  • White rice, dried sea algae and milk, eaten together
57 81 Healthy » 7 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
  • White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice)
56 80 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
  • White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice)
55 79 Healthy » 9 Rice » 2 hours12
Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W.
Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr (in press).
Mean of 3 types
56 ± 1 80 ± 1 300 47 26
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
White teparies broth4
Phaseolus acutifolius
31 ± 3 44 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 250 mL 32 10
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pacific Islanders » Yam
  • Yam, peeled, boiled
25 ± 4 36 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Yam, peeled, boiled
35 ± 5 50 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
30 ± 5 43 ± 7 150 36 13
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » African »
Yam15 (Dyscoria)
Ghana
66 94 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours14 150 36 23
Brakohiapa LA, Quayo KE, Amoah AGB, et al.
Blood glucose responses to mixed Ghanaian diets in healthy adult males.
West Afr J Med 1997; 16:170−3.
Indigenous Or Traditional Foods Of Different Ethnic Groups » Pima Indian »
Yellow teparies broth4
Phaseolus acutifolius
29 ± 3 41 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 250 mL 26 8
Brand JC, Snow BJ, Nabhan GP, Truswell AS.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to traditional Pima Indian meals.
Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:416−20.
  1. NS (Non Specific), not specified; type 1 and type 2, subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; AUC (Area Under the Curve). Serving sizes in grams unless specified otherwise.
  2. x ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean). Two GI vlaues are shown for each food−one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.
  3. Estimated by multiplying the food’s listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.
  4. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate.
  5. AUC measured over 3 h for only 4 time points (0, 1, 2, and 3 h).
  6. GI calculated by using a mathematical formula based on results from an in vitro starch hydrolysis assay.
  7. Both the test food and the reference food contained 45 g carbohydrate.
  8. Reference food was an ordinary corn flour arepa.
  9. AUC measured over 4 h for only 6 time points (0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min).
  10. Both the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate.
  11. Potato used as reference food with a GI fixed at 80. The GI of the test food was calculated by expressing the test food's glucose AUC value as a percentage of the potato's AUC value.
  12. White rice was used as the reference food, but glucose was also tested and had a GI of 122. The observed GI was multiplied by 100 and then divided by 122 to convert it to a GI on the glucose scale (ie, glucose = reference food with a GI of 100).
  13. Used as reference food and given a GI of 100. The GI of the test food was measured by expressing the glucose AUC value for the test food as a percentage of the AUC value for wheat chapatti.
  14. AUC measured over 2 h for 4 time points (0, 30, 60, and 120 min).
  15. Eaten as part of a mixed meal with fish, tomato, and onion sauce.
  16. AUC measured over 3 h for only 5 time points (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min).
  17. Human Nutrition Unit (Sydney University, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995–2002.
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