Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables, legumes/pulses, whole grains, nuts, fructose
Medium GI 56–69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potato, sucrose, baked potatoes
High GI 70 and above white bread, most white rices, corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose

Cereal Grains

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Glycemic Index Search

Use the above search utility to search for foods either by name or by GI value.

67 results found.

International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 20021

Description G.I.
(Glucose = 100)2
G.I.
(Bread = 100)2
Subjects
(Type and Number)
Reference Food and Time Period Serving Size
grams
Available Carbohydrate Content
grams / serving
Glycemic Load3
(per serving)
Cereal Grains » Amaranth »
Amaranth - popped, eaten with milk and nonnutritive sweetener (Amaranthus esculentum)
India
97 ± 19 139 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours 30 22 21
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White »
Arborio, risotto rice, boiled
Sun Rice brand | Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
69 ± 7 99 Healthy » 10 Glucose 2 hours 150 53 36
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Bangladeshi rice variety BR16
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose)
37 53 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 39 14
Larsen HN, Christensen C, Rasmussen OW, et al.
Influence of parboiling and physico−chemical characteristics of rice on the glycaemic index in non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:22−7.
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, white, long grain (27% amylose), boiled 17.5 min
39 55 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 150 39 15
Larsen HM, Rasmussen OW, Rasmussen PH, et al.
Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54:380−5.
Mean of 2 studies
38 54 ± 1 150 39 15
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Rice Parboiled, Low-amylose »
Bangladeshi rice variety BR2, parboiled (12% amylose)
51 73 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 38 19
Larsen HN, Christensen C, Rasmussen OW, et al.
Influence of parboiling and physico−chemical characteristics of rice on the glycaemic index in non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:22−7.
Cereal Grains » Barley » Barley
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
37 53 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
48 69 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
43 ± 6 61 ± 8 150 42 26
Cereal Grains » Barley »
Barley, cracked
Malthouth | Tunisia
50 72 ± 7 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 150 42 21
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Barley »
Barley, rolled
Australia
66 ± 5 94 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 50 (dry) 38 25
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Basmati, white, boiled
Mahatma brand | Sydney | Australia
58 ± 8 83 Healthy » 9 Bread » 2 hours 150 38 22
Holt SHA, Brand Miller J.
Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.
Appetite 1995; 24:43−54.
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Lion Foods | Bangkok | Thailand
86 ± 10 123 ± 14 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 150 43 37
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Barley » Buckwheat
  • Buckwheat
49 70 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Buckwheat
51 ± 10 73 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • Buckwheat
63 90 ± 8 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 3 studies
54 ± 4 78 ± 6 150 30 16
Cereal Grains » Barley »
Buckwheat groats, hydrothermally treated, dehusked, boiled 12 min
Sweden
45 64 ± 10 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 150 30 13
Skrabanja V, Liljeberg−Elmståhl HGM, Kreft I, Björck IME.
Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat products: studies in vitro and in vivo.
J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49:490−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Cajun Style
Uncle Ben's | Effem Foods Ltd | Bolton | Canada
51 72 ± 13 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 8 Bread » 3 hours 150 37 19
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Calrose brown
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
87 ± 8 124 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 38 33
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White Low-amylose »
Calrose, white, medium grain, boiled
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
83 ± 13 119 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 43 36
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize » Cornmeal
68 97 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 13 9
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
69 99 ± 10 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 12 9
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Mean of 2 studies
69 ± 1 98 ± 1 150 13 9
Cereal Grains » Couscous » Couscous, boiled 5 min
61 87 ± 7 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
  • Couscous, boiled 5 min
69 99 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Mean of 2 studies
65 ± 4 93 ± 6 150 35 23
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Cracked wheat (bulgur or bourghul)
  • Bulgur, boiled
46 66 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • Bulgur, boiled in 800 mL water 20 min
46 65 ± 4 Type 1 Diabetic » 5
Type 2 Diabetic » 12
Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
  • Bulgur, boiled 20 min
46 65 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Bulgur, boiled 20 min
53 75 ± 13 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 4 studies
48 ± 2 68 ± 3 150 26 12
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Doongara brown, high-amylose
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
66 ± 7 94 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 37 24
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Doongara, white
50 ± 6 69 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Holt SHA, Brand Miller J.
Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.
Appetite 1995; 24:43−54.
64 ± 9 91 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
54 ± 7 75 Healthy » 9 Bread » 2 hours
Holt SHA, Brand Miller J.
Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.
Appetite 1995; 24:43−54.
Mean of 3 studies
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton
56 ± 4 78 ± 7 150 39 22
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Wheat, Precooked Kernels »
Durum wheat, precooked in pouch, reheated in microwave
Ebly Express | Chateaudun | France
40 ± 5 57 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 125 39 16
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Wheat, Precooked Kernels »
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 10 min
Ebly | Chateaudun | France
50 ± 5 71 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 33 17
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Wheat, Precooked Kernels »
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 20 min
Ebly | Chateaudun | France
52 ± 4 74 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 37 19
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Garden Style
Uncle Ben's | Effem Foods Ltd | Bolton | Canada
55 79 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 150 37 21
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill Co | Bangkok | Thailand
98 ± 7 140 ± 10 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 150 32 31
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Instant doongara, white, cooked 5 min
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
94 ± 7 132 Healthy » 9 Bread » 2 hours 150 42 35
Holt SHA, Brand Miller J.
Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.
Appetite 1995; 24:43−54.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Instant or puffed rice
  • Instant rice, white, boiled 1 min
46 65 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 42 19
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
87 124 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 42 36
Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS.
Food processing and the glycemic index.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42:1192−6.
74 ± 5 106 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 42 31
Unpublished Observations4
Mean of 3 studies
69 ± 12 98 ± 17 150 42 29
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Jasmine rice, white long grain, cooked in rice cooker
Golden World Foods | Bangkok | Thailand
109 ± 10 156 ± 14 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 150 42 46
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Koshikari, white, short-grain, boiled 15 min then steamed 10 min (Japonica)
Japan
48 ± 8 68 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 150 38 18
Matsuo T, Mizushima Y, Komuro M, Sugeta A, Suzuki M.
Estimation of glycemic and insulinemic responses to short−grain rice (Japonica) and a short−grain rice−mixed meal in healthy young subjects.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1999;8:190−4.
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Long Grain and Wild
Uncle Ben's | Effem Foods Ltd | Bolton | Canada
54 77 ± 9 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 8 Bread » 3 hours 150 37 20
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White » Long grain, boiled
  • Long grain, boiled 5 min
41 58 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 40 16
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
50 71 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 43 21
Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS.
Food processing and the glycemic index.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42:1192−6.
55 79 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 150 40 22
Wolever TMS, Nuttal FQ, Lee R, et al.
Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1985; 8:418−28.
56 ± 7 80 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 150 43 24
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Long grain, boiled 25 min
56 ± 2 80 Type 2 Diabetic » 3 Glucose » 3 hours 150 43 24
Bornet FRJ, Costagliola D, Rizkalla SW, et al.
Insulinemic and glycemic indexes of six starch−rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45:588−95.
57 82 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 150 40 23
Wolever TMS, Nuttal FQ, Lee R, et al.
Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1985; 8:418−28.
  • Long grain, boiled 15 min
58 83 ± 5 Type 1 Diabetic » 5
Type 2 Diabetic » 13
Bread » 3 hours 150 40 23
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
60 86 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 40 24
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
60 86 ± 11 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 150 40 24
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
64 ± 3 91 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 40 26
Unpublished Observations4
Mean of 10 studies
56 ± 2 80 ± 3 150 41 23
Cereal Grains » Rice, Long Grain, Quick-cooking Varieties »
Long grain, parboiled 10 min cooking time
Uncle Ben's | Masterfoods | Olen | Belgium
68 ± 6 97 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 37 25
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, Long Grain, Quick-cooking Varieties »
Long grain, parboiled, 20 min cooking time
Uncle Ben's | Masterfoods | Olen | Belgium
75 ± 7 107 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 37 28
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, Long Grain, Quick-cooking Varieties »
Long grain, white, precooked, microwaved 2 min
Express Rice, plain | Uncle Ben's | King's Lynn | UK
52 ± 5 74 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 37 19
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize »
Maize meal porridge or gruel (Kenya and Canada)
McNair Products Co Ltd | Toronto | Canada
109 156 ± 15 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 2.5 hours
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize »
Maize, flour made into chapatti (Zea mays)
India
59 85 Healthy » 18 Bread » 3 hours
Shukla K, Narain JP, Puri P, et al.
Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:249−54.
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Mexican Fast and Fancy
Uncle Ben's | Effem Foods Ltd | Bolton | Canada
58 83 ± 7 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 150 37 22
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Millet »
Millet flour porridge or gruel
Kenya
107 153 ± 14 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 2 hours
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Cereal Grains » Millet »
Millet, boiled
Canada
71 ± 10 101 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours 150 36 25
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Parboiled rice
  • Parboiled rice
48 68 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 18
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Parboiled rice
72 103 Type 2 Diabetic » 5
Impaired Glucose Tolerance » 65
Bread » 3 hours 150 36 26
Crapo PA, Kolterman OG, Waldeck N, Reaven GM, Olefsky JM.
Postprandial hormonal responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1723−8.
  • Converted, white
    | Canada
45 64 ± 7 Type 1 Diabetic » 5 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 16
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Converted, white, boiled 20–30 min
    | USA
38 54 Healthy » 16 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 14
Crapo PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J.
Postprandial plasma−glucose and insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes 1977; 26:1178−83.
  • Converted, white, long grain, boiled 20–30 min
    | USA
50 72 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 18
Crapo PA, Insel J, Sperling M, Kolterman OG.
Comparison of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in non−insulin−dependent diabetic patients.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:184−90.
  • Boiled, 12 min
39 55 ± 10 Type 2 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 2 hours 150 36 14
Rasmussen OW, Gregersen S.
Influence of the amount of starch on the glycaemic index to rice in non−insulin−dependent diabetic subjects.
Br J Nutr 1992; 67:371−7.
  • Boiled, 12 min
42 60 ± 8 Type 2 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 2 hours 150 36 15
Rasmussen OW, Gregersen S.
Influence of the amount of starch on the glycaemic index to rice in non−insulin−dependent diabetic subjects.
Br J Nutr 1992; 67:371−7.
  • Boiled, 12 min
43 62 ± 9 Type 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 5 hours 150 36 16
Rasmussen OW, Gregersen S, Dørup J, Hermansen K.
Blood glucose and insulin responses to different meals in non−insulin−dependent diabetic subjects of both sexes.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:712−5.
  • Boiled, 12 min
46 66 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 5 hours 150 36 17
Rasmussen OW, Gregersen S, Dørup J, Hermansen K.
Blood glucose and insulin responses to different meals in non−insulin−dependent diabetic subjects of both sexes.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:712−5.
  • Long grain, boiled 5 min
38 54 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 14
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
  • Long grain, boiled, 10 min
61 87 Type 2 Diabetic » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 150 36 22
Krezowski PA, Nuttal FQ, Gannon MC, et al.
Insulin and glucose responses to various starch−containing foods in type II diabetic subjects.
Diabetes Care 1987; 10:205−12.
  • Long grain, boiled 15 min
47 67 ± 5 Type 1 Diabetic » 5
Type 2 Diabetic » 13
Bread » 3 hours 150 36 17
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
  • Long grain, boiled 25 min
46 66 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 17
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Kalmusky J, et al.
Comparison of regular and parboiled rices: explanation of discrepancies between reported glycemic responses to rice.
Nutr Res 1986; 6:349−57.
Mean of 13 studies
47 ± 3 68 ± 4 150 36 17
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Parboiled rice, eaten as part of a traditional Indian meal7
India
99 141 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Glucose » 2 hours
Kavita MS, Prema L.
Glycaemic response to selected cereal−based South Indian meals in non−insulin dependent diabetics.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:287−94.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Parboiled, cooked 20 min (Uncle Ben's Natur-reis)
Masterfoods | Olen | Belgium
64 ± 7 91 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 36 23
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Parboiled, high-amylose
50 ± 6 69 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 39 19
Holt SHA, Brand Miller J.
Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.
Appetite 1995; 24:43−54.
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, parboiled (28% amylose)
35 50 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 37 13
Larsen HN, Christensen C, Rasmussen OW, et al.
Influence of parboiling and physico−chemical characteristics of rice on the glycaemic index in non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:22−7.
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, traditionally parboiled (27% amylose)
32 46 ± 8 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 150 38 12
Larsen HM, Rasmussen OW, Rasmussen PH, et al.
Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54:380−5.
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, pressure parboiled (27% amylose)
27 39 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 150 41 11
Larsen HM, Rasmussen OW, Rasmussen PH, et al.
Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54:380−5.
  • Bangladeshi rice variety BR4, parboiled (27% amylose)
33 47 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 150 38 13
Larsen HN, Christensen C, Rasmussen OW, et al.
Influence of parboiling and physico−chemical characteristics of rice on the glycaemic index in non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:22−7.
Mean of 5 studies
35 ± 4 50 ± 5 150 39 14
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Rice Parboiled, Low-amylose »
Parboiled, low-amylose, Pelde, Sungold
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
87 ± 7 124 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 39 34
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Barley » Pearl barley
  • Barley, pearled
22 32 ± 3 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Barley
22 31 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Kalmusky J, et al.
Low glycemic index carbohydrate foods in the management of hyperlipidemia.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 45:604−17.
25 ± 2 36 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations4
  • Barley
27 39 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 4 Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • Barley, pearled
29 41 ± 10 Type 1 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 5 studies
25 ± 1 36 ± 2 150 42 11
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Pelde brown
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
76 ± 6 109 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 38 29
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White Low-amylose »
Pelde, white
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
93 ± 11 133 Healthy » 7 Bread » 2 hours 150 43 40
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Precooked basmati rice in pouch, white, reheated in microwave
Express Rice, plain | Uncle Ben's | King's Lynn | UK
57 ± 4 81 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 41 24
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Wheat, Precooked Kernels »
Quick cooking
White Wings | Sydney | Australia
54 ± 11 77 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 150 47 25
Ross SW, Brand JC, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS.
Glycemic index of processed wheat products.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46:631−5.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Quick-cooking white basmati, cooked 10 min
Uncle Ben's Superior | Masterfoods | Olen | Belgium
60 ± 5 86 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 150 38 23
Unpublished Observations4
Cereal Grains » Rice, White » Rice, boiled white, type Non Specific
  • Type Non Specific, eaten alone
45 64 Type 2 Diabetic » 30 Glucose » 3 hours8 150 30 14
Le Floch JP, Baudin E, Escuyer P,Wirquin E, Nillus P, Perlemuter L.
Influence of non−carbohydrate foods on glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrates of different glycaemic index in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabet Med 1992; 9:44−8.
  • Type Non Specific
48 68 Healthy » 6 Wheat chapatti » 2 hours9 150 38 18
Dilwari JB, Kamath PS, Batta RP, Mukewar S, Raghavan S.
Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietnum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:2450−3.
  • Type Non Specific
51 73 Diabetic Non Specific Glucose » time not specified 150 42 21
Otto H, Niklas L.
Differences d’action sur la glycemie d’aliments contenant des hydrated de carbone: consequences pour le traitment dietetique du diabete sucre. (Differences in the action of foods containing carbohydrates on blood glucose levels: implications for the dietetic treatment of diabetes mellitus.)
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. Starchy foods and glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1988; 11:149−59.
  • Type Non Specific
52 74 ± 9 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 150 36 19
Mourot J, Thouvenot P, Antoine JM, Debry G.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of four starchy foods.
In: Leff S, ed. Advances in diet and nutrition. 2nd ed. London: John Libbey & Co, 1988.
  • Type Non Specific
56 80 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 150 42 23
Jenkins DJA,Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: a new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes.
Diabetologia 1983; 24:257−64.
  • Type Non Specific
69 98 Type 2 Diabetic » 22 Wheat chapatti » 3 hours9 150 38 26
Rahman M, Malik MA, Mubarak SA.
Glycaemic index of Pakistani staple foods in mixed meals for diabetics.
J Pak Med Assoc 1992; 42:60−2.
  • Type Non Specific
72 ± 9 103 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 150 42 30
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • Type Non Specific, boiled in salted water
72 103 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3 hours 150 38 27
Kanan W, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, et al.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to natural foods, frozen foods and their laboratory equivalents.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 42:81−9.
  • Type Non Specific, boiled 13 min
102 146 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 31
Gatti E, Testolin G, Noè D, et al.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrate food (rice) with different thermal processing.
Ann Nutr Metab 1987;331:296−303.
  • Type Non Specific
112 160 ± 34 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 2 hours 150 42 47
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
  • Type Non Specific, boiled
43 61 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Glucose » 3 hours8 150 30 13
Le Floch JP, Baudin E, Escuyer P,Wirquin E, Nillus P, Perlemuter L.
Influence of non−carbohydrate foods on glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrates of different glycaemic index in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabet Med 1992; 9:44−8.
  • Type Non Specific, boiled
47 66 Type 2 Diabetic » 16 Glucose » 3 hours8 150 30 14
Le Floch JP, Baudin E, Escuyer P,Wirquin E, Nillus P, Perlemuter L.
Influence of non−carbohydrate foods on glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrates of different glycaemic index in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabet Med 1992; 9:44−8.
Mean of 12 studies
64 ± 7 91 ± 9 150 36 23
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Rice, brown
  • Brown
66 ± 5 94 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 150 33 21
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • Brown, steamed
50 72 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 3 hours10 150 33 16
Potter JG, Coffman KP, Reid RL, Krall JM, Albrink MJ.
Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:328−34.
  • Brown, boiled (Oryza Sativa)
50 ± 19 72 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours10 150 33 16
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
Mean of 3 studies
55 ± 5 79 ± 6 150 33 18
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose » Rye, whole kernels
  • Rye, whole kernels
29 42 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 38 11
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Rye, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water
34 47 ± 5 Type 1 Diabetic » 5
Type 2 Diabetic » 9
Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 38 13
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
  • Rye, whole kernels
39 56 ± 12 Type 1 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 38 15
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 3 studies
34 ± 3 48 ± 4 50 (dry) 38 13
Cereal Grains » Rice, Specialty Rices »
Saskatchewan wild rice
Canada
57 81 ± 8 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 150 32 18
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Semolina
  • Semolina, roasted at 105°C then gelatinized with water
55 ± 9 79 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
  • Semolina, steamed and gelatinized
54 ± 13 77 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours
Mani UV, Pradhan SN, Mehta NC, et al.
Glycaemic index of conventional carbohydrate meals.
Br J Nutr 1992; 68:445−50.
Mean of 2 studies
55 ± 1 78 ± 1 150 11 6
Cereal Grains » Rice, White High-amylose »
Sunbrown Quick
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
80 ± 7 114 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 38 31
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White Low-amylose »
Sungold, Pelde, parboiled
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
87 ± 7 124 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 150 43 37
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize » Sweet corn
  • Sweet corn, honey and pearl variety
37 ± 12 53 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 11
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min
48 69 Healthy » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 14
Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS.
Food processing and the glycemic index.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42:1192−6.
  • Sweet corn
59 ± 11 84 Healthy » 5 Glucose » 2 hours 150 33 20
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • Sweet corn
60 86 Healthy » 16 Bread » 3 hours 150 33 20
Crapo PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J.
Postprandial plasma−glucose and insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes 1977; 26:1178−83.
  • Sweet corn
60 85 Type 2 Diabetic » 5
Impaired Glucose Tolerance » 65
Bread » 3 hours 150 33 20
Crapo PA, Kolterman OG, Waldeck N, Reaven GM, Olefsky JM.
Postprandial hormonal responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1723−8.
  • Sweet corn
62 ± 5 89 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 150 33 20
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
Mean of 6 studies
53 ± 4 78 ± 6 150 32 17
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize »
Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave
Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd | Toronto | Canada
47 67 ± 4 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 150 33 16
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize »
Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned, diet-pack, drained, featherweight
USA
46 66 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Bread » 3 hours 150 28 13
Crapo PA, Insel J, Sperling M, Kolterman OG.
Comparison of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in non−insulin−dependent diabetic patients.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:184−90.
Cereal Grains » Corn And Maize »
Taco shells, cornmeal based, baked
Old El Paso Foods Co | Toronto | Canada
68 97 ± 9 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 20 12 8
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White »
Type Non Specific, boiled 13 min, then baked 10 min
Italy
104 149 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 150 30 31
Gatti E, Testolin G, Noè D, et al.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrate food (rice) with different thermal processing.
Ann Nutr Metab 1987;331:296−303.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White »
Type Non Specific, boiled in salted water, refrigerated 16–20 h, reheated
India
53 76 Healthy » 8 Bread » 3 hours 150 38 20
Kanan W, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, et al.
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to natural foods, frozen foods and their laboratory equivalents.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 42:81−9.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White Low-amylose »
Waxy (0–2% amylose)
Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd | Leeton | Australia
88 ± 11 126 Healthy » 7 Bread » 2 hours 150 43 38
Brand−Miller J, Pang E, Bramall L.
Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?
Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1034−6.
Cereal Grains » Wheat »
Wheat, type Non Specific
India
90 129 Type 2 Diabetic » 20 Glucose » 2 hours 50 (dry) 38 34
Kavita MS, Prema L.
Glycaemic response to selected cereal−based South Indian meals in non−insulin dependent diabetics.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:287−94.
Cereal Grains » Wheat » Wheat, whole kernels
  • Wheat, whole kernels (Triticum aestivum)
30 ± 9 43 Healthy » 12–15 Glucose » 3 hours10 50 (dry) 38 11
Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S.
Glycemic index of selected foodstuffs commonly used in South India.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1992;62:266−8.
  • Wheat, whole kernels
42 60 ± 8 Type 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 33 14
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Wheat, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water
44 63 ± 6 Type 1 Diabetic » 6
Type 2 Diabetic » 11
Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 33 14
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
  • Wheat, whole kernels
48 69 ± 7 Type 1 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 3 hours 50 (dry) 33 16
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 4 studies
41 ± 3 59 ± 4 50 (dry) 34 14
Cereal Grains » Rice, White »
White, boiled (India)
Oryza sativa | India
69 ± 15 99 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 3 hours 150 43 30
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Cereal Grains » Rice, White Low-amylose »
White, low-amylose, boiled
Turkey
139 199 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 150 43 60
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
  1. NS (Non Specific), not specified; type 1 and type 2, subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; AUC (Area Under the Curve). Serving sizes in grams unless specified otherwise.
  2. x ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean). Two GI vlaues are shown for each food−one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.
  3. Estimated by multiplying the food’s listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.
  4. Human Nutrition Unit (Sydney University, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995–2002.
  5. Impaired glucose tolerance.
  6. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate.
  7. GI calculated from the AUC for glucose.
  8. AUC measured over 3 h for only 5 time points (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min).
  9. Used as reference food and given a GI of 100. The GI of the test food was measured by expressing the glucose AUC value for the test food as a percentage of the AUC value for wheat chapatti.
  10. GI calculated from AUC food/AUC glucose formula. The AUC value was calculated over 3 h for 5 time points only.
  11. Both the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate.
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