Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables, legumes/pulses, whole grains, nuts, fructose
Medium GI 56–69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potato, sucrose, baked potatoes
High GI 70 and above white bread, most white rices, corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose

Breads

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Glycemic Index Search

Use the above search utility to search for foods either by name or by GI value.

99 results found.

International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 20021

Description G.I.
(Glucose = 100)2
G.I.
(Bread = 100)2
Subjects
(Type and Number)
Reference Food and Time Period Serving Size
grams
Available Carbohydrate Content
grams / serving
Glycemic Load3
(per serving)
Breads » Barley Breads » Barley Flour Breads »
100% barley flour
Canada
67 96 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 13 9
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
100% Whole-grain bread
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
51 ± 11 73 ± 15 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 7
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
9-Grain Multi-Grain
Tip Top Bakeries | Chatswood | Australia
43 ± 5 61 Healthy » 10–12 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 6
Brand−Miller JC, Wang B, McNeil Y, Swan V.
The glycaemic index of more breads, breakfast cereals and snack products.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1997; 21:144 (abstr).
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Amaranth:wheat (25:75) composite flour flatbread
India
66 ± 10 94 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 30 15 10
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Amaranth:wheat (50:50) composite flour flatbread
India
76 ± 20 109 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 30 15 11
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads » Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye
  • Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye
    | Australia
55 ± 12 79 Healthy » 9 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye
    | Australia
74 ± 6 106 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 2 studies
65 ± 10 93 ± 14 30 10 7
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Bürgen fruit loaf
Tip Top Bakeries | Chatswood | Australia
44 ± 5 63 ± 7 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 6
Brand−Miller JC, Wang B, McNeil Y, Swan V.
The glycaemic index of more breads, breakfast cereals and snack products.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1997; 21:144 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads » Bürgen Mixed-Grain bread
34 ± 4 49 Healthy » 10–12 Bread » 2 hours
Brand−Miller JC, Wang B, McNeil Y, Swan V.
The glycaemic index of more breads, breakfast cereals and snack products.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1997; 21:144 (abstr).
45 ± 12 64 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
69 ± 6 99 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 3 studies
Tip Top Bakeries | Chatswood | Australia
49 ± 10 71 ± 15 30 11 6
Breads »
Bagel, white, frozen
Lender's Bakery | Montreal | Canada
72 103 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours 70 35 25
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads »
Baguette, white, plain
France
95 ± 15 136 Type 2 Diabetic » 3 Glucose » 3 hours 30 15 15
Bornet FRJ, Costagliola D, Rizkalla SW, et al.
Insulinemic and glycemic indexes of six starch−rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45:588−95.
Breads » Barley Breads » Barley kernel bread, 50% kernels
  • 50% kernels
43 62 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 5 Bread » 3 hours 30 20 9
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • 50% kibbled barley
48 69 ± 7 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 20 10
Brown D, Tomlinson D, Brand Miller J.
The development of low glycaemic index breads.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1992; 17:62 (abstr).
Mean of 2 studies
46 ± 2 66 ± 3 30 20 9
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Blackbread, Riga
Berzin's Specialty Bakery | Sydney | Australia
76 ± 14 109 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 30 13 10
Brand JC, Foster KA, Crossman S, Truswell AS.
The glycaemic and insulin indices of realistic meals and rye breads tested in healthy subjects.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 1990; 3:137−42.
Breads »
Bread stuffing
Paxo | Campbell Soup Co Ltd | Toronto | Canada
74 106 ± 10 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 30 21 16
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Buckwheat Bread »
Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked buckwheat groats and 50% white-wheat flour
Sweden
47 67 ± 10 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 21 10
Skrabanja V, Liljeberg−Elmståhl HGM, Kreft I, Björck IME.
Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat products: studies in vitro and in vivo.
J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49:490−6.
Breads » Barley Breads » Coarse barley kernel bread, 75–80% kernels
  • 75% kernels
27 39 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 5 Bread » 3 hours 30 20 5
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • 80% scalded intact kernels (20% white-wheat flour)
34 48 ± 10 Healthy » 10 Bread » 1.5 hours 30 20 7
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
  • 80% intact kernels (20% white-wheat flour)
40 57 ± 10 Healthy » 10 Bread » 1.5 hours 30 20 8
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
Mean of 3 studies
34 ± 4 48 ± 9
Breads » Oat Bread »
Coarse oat-kernel bread, 80% intact oat kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden)
65 93 ± 11 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 19 12
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
Breads » Wheat Bread »
Coarse wheat-kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white-wheat flour
Sweden
52 74 ± 7 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 20 10
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread with dried fruit
Australia
47 ± 6 67 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 15 7
Brand Miller J, Pang E, Broomhead L.
The glycaemic index of foods containing sugars: comparison of foods with naturally occurring v. added sugars.
Br J Nutr 1995; 73:613−23.
Breads » Wheat Bread » Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread
  • 50% cracked wheat kernel
58 83 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 20 12
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • 75% cracked wheat kernels
48 69 ± 4 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 20 10
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
Mean of 2 studies
53 ± 3 76 ± 4 30 20 11
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
English Muffin bread
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
77 ± 7 109 ± 11 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 11
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » White Resistant Starch-enriched Bread »
Fibre white
Nature's Fresh | Auckland | New Zealand
77 ± 10 110 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 30 15 11
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Breads »
French baguette with butter and strawberry jam
France
62 ± 7 89 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 70 41 26
Unpublished Observations5
Breads »
French baguette with chocolate spread
France
72 ± 8 101 Healthy » 14 Glucose » 2 hours 70 37 27
Unpublished Observations5
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Fruit and spice loaf, thick sliced
Buttercup Bakeries | Moorebank | Australia
54 ± 6 77 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 15 8
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Gluten-free Bread » Gluten-free fiber-enriched
  • Unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran)
69 99 ± 12 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 White bread » 3 hours 30 13 9
Packer SC, Dornhurst A, Frost GS.
The glycaemic index of a range of gluten−free foods.
Diabet Med 2000; 17:657−60.
  • Sliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran)
76 109 ± 13 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 White bread » 3 hours 30 13 10
Packer SC, Dornhurst A, Frost GS.
The glycaemic index of a range of gluten−free foods.
Diabet Med 2000; 17:657−60.
Mean of 2 studies
73 ± 4 104 ± 5 30 13 9
Breads » Gluten-free Bread »
Gluten-free multigrain bread
Country Life Bakeries | Dandenong | Australia
79 ± 13 113 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 13 10
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Gluten-free Bread » Gluten-free white bread (gluten-free wheat starch)
  • Unsliced
71 101 ± 22 Type 2 Diabetic » 11 White bread » 3 hours 30 15 11
Packer SC, Dornhurst A, Frost GS.
The glycaemic index of a range of gluten−free foods.
Diabet Med 2000; 17:657−60.
  • Sliced
80 114 ± 21 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 White bread » 3 hours 30 15 12
Packer SC, Dornhurst A, Frost GS.
The glycaemic index of a range of gluten−free foods.
Diabet Med 2000; 17:657−60.
Mean of 2 studies
76 ± 5 108 ± 7 30 15 11
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Hamburger bun
Loblaw's | Toronto | Canada
61 87 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 15 9
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Happiness (cinnamon, raisin and pecan bread)
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
63 ± 5 89 ± 7 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 9
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Healthy Choice Hearty 100% Whole Grain
Healthy Choice | Con Agra Inc | Omaha, Nebraska | USA
62 ± 6 89 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 9
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Healthy Choice Hearty 7 Grain
Healthy Choice | Con Agra Inc | Omaha, Nebraska | USA
55 ± 6 79 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 8
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Helga's Classic Seed Loaf
Quality Bakers | Sydney | Australia
68 ± 9 97 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 9
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Helga's traditional whole-meal bread
Quality Bakers | Sydney | Australia
70 ± 14 100 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 30 13 9
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Hunger Filler, whole-grain bread
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
59 ± 8 84 ± 12 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 7
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Kaiser rolls
Loblaw's | Toronto | Canada
73 104 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 16 12
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Klosterbrot whole-meal rye bread
Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd | Canada
67 95 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 30 13 9
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Lebanese bread, white
Seda Bakery | Sydney | Australia
75 ± 9 107 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 16 12
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Light rye
Silverstein's Bakery | Toronto | Canada
68 97 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 14 10
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Linseed rye
Rudolph's Specialty Bakery Ltd | Canada
55 78 ± 8 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 30 13 7
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Melba toast
Old London | Best Foods Canada Inc | Etobicoke | Canada
70 100 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 30 23 16
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Middle Eastern flatbread
97 ± 29 139 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 30 16 15
Mehio Z, Hwalla Baba N, Habbal Z.
Glycemic and insulinemic responses of normal subjects to selected meals commonly consumed in the Middle East.
J Nutr Environ Med 1997; 7:275−86.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads » Molenberg
  • Molenberg
    | Auckland
75 ± 10 107 Healthy » 15 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
  • Molenberg
    | Auckland
84 ± 8 120 Type 2 Diabetic » 14 Glucose » 2 hours
Perry T, Mann J, Mehalski K, Gayya C,Wilson J, Thompson C.
Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.
N Z Med J 2000; 113:140−2.
Mean of 2 studies
| Auckland
80 ± 5 114 ± 7 30 14 11
Breads » Fruit Breads »
Muesli bread » made from packet mix in bread making machine
Con Agra Inc | Omaha, Nebraska | USA
54 ± 6 77 ± 9 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 7
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Multigrain (50% kibbled wheat grain)
Australia
43 61 ± 7 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 6
Brown D, Tomlinson D, Brand Miller J.
The development of low glycaemic index breads.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1992; 17:62 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Multigrain loaf, spelt wheat flour
Australia
54 ± 10 77 Healthy » 7–10 Bread » 2 hours 30 15 8
Brand−Miller JC, Allwan C, Mehalski K, Brooks D.
The glycaemic index of further Australian foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1998; 22:110 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Nutty Natural, whole-grain bread
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
59 ± 7 85 ± 11 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 7
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Oat Bran and Honey Loaf with Barley
Bürgen | Tip Top Bakeries | Chatswood | Australia
31 ± 3 44 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 10 3
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Oat-bran Bread » Oat Bran Bread
  • 50% Oat bran
44 63 ± 10 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 18 8
Brown D, Tomlinson D, Brand Miller J.
The development of low glycaemic index breads.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1992; 17:62 (abstr).
  • 45% Oat bran and 50% wheat flour
50 72 ± 10 Healthy » 10 Bread » 1.5 hours 30 18 9
Granfeldt Y, Björck I, Drews A, Tovar J.
An in vitro procedure based on chewing to predict the metabolic response to starch in cereal and legume products.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:649−60.
Mean of 2 studies
47 ± 3 68 ± 5 30 18 9
Breads »
Pain au lait
Pasquier | France
63 ± 10 90 Healthy » 12 Glucose » 2 hours 60 32 20
Unpublished Observations5
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Performax
Country Life Bakeries | Dandenong | Australia
38 ± 3 55 ± 4 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 5
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Pita bread, white
Canada
57 82 ± 10 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 7 Bread » 3 hours 30 17 10
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Ploughman's Whole-grain, original recipe
Quality Bakers | Sydney | Australia
47 67 ± 4 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 7
Brown D, Tomlinson D, Brand Miller J.
The development of low glycaemic index breads.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1992; 17:62 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Ploughman's Whole-meal, smooth milled
Quality Bakers | Sydney | Australia
64 ± 10 91 Healthy » 12 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 9
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Rice Bread »
Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice
Pav's Allergy Bakery | Ingleburn | Australia
61 ± 9 88 ± 13 Healthy » 12 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 7
Brand−Miller JC, Allwan C, Mehalski K, Brooks D.
The glycaemic index of further Australian foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1998; 22:110 (abstr).
Breads » Rice Bread »
Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice
Pav's Allergy Bakery | Ingleburn | Australia
72 ± 9 103 ± 10 Healthy » 12 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 8
Brand−Miller JC, Allwan C, Mehalski K, Brooks D.
The glycaemic index of further Australian foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1998; 22:110 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Roggenbrot, Vogel's
Stevns and Co | Sydney | Australia
59 ± 5 84 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 8
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Rye Bread » Rye-kernel (pumpernickel) bread
  • Coarse rye-kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white-wheat flour
41 58 ± 8 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 5
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
  • Rye-kernel bread, pumpernickel
41 58 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified 30 12 5
Otto H, Niklas L.
Differences d’action sur la glycemie d’aliments contenant des hydrated de carbone: consequences pour le traitment dietetique du diabete sucre. (Differences in the action of foods containing carbohydrates on blood glucose levels: implications for the dietetic treatment of diabetes mellitus.)
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. Starchy foods and glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1988; 11:149−59.
46 66 ± 7 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 30 11 5
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
  • Rye-kernel bread, pumpernickel (80% kernels)
55 78 ± 3 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 7
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
55 79 ± 3 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 7
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
62 88 ± 13 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 6 studies
50 ± 4 71 ± 7 30 12 6
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
Scalded spelt wheat-kernel bread6
Slovenia
67 96 Healthy » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 22 15
Skrabanja V, Kova B, Golob T, et al.
Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.
J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:497−500.
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Schinkenbrot, Riga
Berzin's Specialty Bakery | Sydney | Australia
86 ± 15 123 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 12
Brand JC, Foster KA, Crossman S, Truswell AS.
The glycaemic and insulin indices of realistic meals and rye breads tested in healthy subjects.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 1990; 3:137−42.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Semolina bread
Kenya
64 92 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours
d’Emden MC, Marwich TH, Dreghorn J, Howlett VL, Cameron DP.
Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to different types of spaghetti and bread.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1987; 3:221−6.
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads » Sourdough rye
  • Sourdough rye
57 83 Type 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Kalmusky J, et al.
Low glycemic index carbohydrate foods in the management of hyperlipidemia.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 45:604−17.
  • Sourdough rye
48 69 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations4
Mean of 2 studies
53 ± 5 76 ± 7 30 12 6
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Sourdough wheat
Australia
54 77 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 8
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Soy and linseed bread (made from packet mix in bread maker)
Con Agra Inc | Omaha, Nebraska | USA
50 ± 6 71 ± 9 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 10 5
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Soy-Lin, kibbled soy (8%) and linseed (8%) loaf
Bürgen | Tip Top Bakeries | Chatswood | Australia
36 ± 4 51 Healthy » 10–12 Bread » 2 hours 30 9 3
Brand−Miller JC, Wang B, McNeil Y, Swan V.
The glycaemic index of more breads, breakfast cereals and snack products.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1997; 21:144 (abstr).
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
Spelt multigrain bread
Pav's Allergy Bakery | Ingleburn | Australia
54 ± 10 77 ± 14 Healthy » 12 Bread » 2 hours 30 12 7
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Stay Trim, whole-grain bread
Natural Ovens | Mannitowoc, Wisconsin | USA
70 ± 10 101 ± 15 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 15 10
Unpublished Observations4
Breads » Barley Breads »
Sunflower and barley bread
Riga bakeries | Sydney | Australia
57 ± 6 81 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 11 6
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Sunflower and barley bread, Riga brand
Berzin's Specialty Bakery | Sydney | Australia
57 ± 6 81 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 13 7
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Vogel's Honey and Oats
Stevns and Co | Sydney | Australia
55 ± 5 79 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 7
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Vogel's Roggenbrot
Stevns and Co | Sydney | Australia
59 ± 5 84 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 8
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
Breads » Specialty Rye Breads »
Volkornbrot, whole-meal rye bread
Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd | Canada
56 80 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 10 Bread » 3 hours 30 13 7
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Unleavened Bread »
Wheat-flour flatbread
India
66 ± 9 94 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Glucose » 2 hours 30 16 10
Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, Nirmalamma N, Satyanarayana D.
Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.
J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997; 50:171−8.
Breads » White Bread With Soluble Fiber » White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber
  • White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium)
41 59 ± 10 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 17 7
Frati Munari AC, Benitez Pinto W, Ariza CR, Casarrubias M.
Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage.
Arch Med Res 1998; 29:137−41.
  • White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium)
65 93 ± 24 Healthy » 10 Bread » 3 hours 30 17 11
Frati Munari AC, Benitez Pinto W, Ariza CR, Casarrubias M.
Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage.
Arch Med Res 1998; 29:137−41.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
53 ± 12 76 ± 17 30 17 9
Breads » White Bread With Enzyme Inhibitors » White bread + acarbose (200 mg)
  • White bread + acarbose (200 mg)
18 26 ± 13 Type 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 17 3
Frati Munari AC, Benitez Pinto W, Ariza CR, Casarrubias M.
Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage.
Arch Med Res 1998; 29:137−41.
  • White bread + acarbose (200 mg)
50 70 ± 5 Healthy » 10 Bread » 3 hours 30 17 8
Frati Munari AC, Benitez Pinto W, Ariza CR, Casarrubias M.
Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage.
Arch Med Res 1998; 29:137−41.
Mean of 2 groups of subjects
34 ± 16 48 ± 22 30 17 6
Breads » White Bread With Soluble Fiber »
White bread containing Eurylon high-amylose maize starch7
France
42 60 ± 6 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2.8 h7 30 19 8
Hoebler C, Karinthi A, Chiron H, Champ M, Barry JL.
Bioavailability of starch in bread rich in amylose: metabolic responses in healthy subjects and starch structure.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53:360−6.
Breads » White Bread With Soluble Fiber »
White bread eaten with powdered dried seaweed (Nori alga)
Spain
48 68 Healthy » 12 Bread » 2 hours 30 15 7
Goñi I, Valdivieso L, Garcia−Alonso A.
Nori seaweed consumption modifies glycemic response in healthy volunteers.
Nutr Res 2000; 20:1367−75.
Breads » White Bread With Soluble Fiber »
White bread eaten with vinegar as vinaigrette
Sweden
45 64 Healthy » 10 Bread » 1.6 hours 30 15 7
Liljeberg H, Björck I.
Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:368−71.
Breads » White Bread With Enzyme Inhibitors »
White bread roll + 3 mg trestatin (pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor)5
Switzerland
48 69 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 4 hours8 30 12 6
Golay A, Schneider H, Temler E, Felber JP.
Effect of trestatin, an amylase inhibitor, incorporated into bread, on glycemic responses in normal and diabetic patients.
Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:61−5.
Breads » White Bread With Enzyme Inhibitors »
White bread roll + 6 mg trestatin9
Switzerland
29 42 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 4 hours8 30 12 4
Golay A, Schneider H, Temler E, Felber JP.
Effect of trestatin, an amylase inhibitor, incorporated into bread, on glycemic responses in normal and diabetic patients.
Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:61−5.
Breads » White Fiber-enriched Bread » White fiber-enriched bread
  • White, high-fiber
67 96 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 13 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
  • White, high-fiber
    | Canada
69 98 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Mean of 2 studies
68 ± 1 97 ± 1 30 13 9
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
White spelt wheat bread6
Slovenia
74 105 Healthy » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 23 17
Skrabanja V, Kova B, Golob T, et al.
Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.
J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:497−500.
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
White Turkish bread
Turkey
87 124 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 30 17 15
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread » White-wheat-flour bread
  • White flour
69 ± 5 99 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 14 10
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • White flour
70 100 Type 2 Diabetic » 5
Impaired Glucose Tolerance » 610
Bread » 3 hours 30 14 10
Crapo PA, Kolterman OG, Waldeck N, Reaven GM, Olefsky JM.
Postprandial hormonal responses to different types of complex carbohydrate in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1723−8.
  • White flour
    | Australia
70 100 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 10
Unpublished Observations4
  • White flour
71 101 ± 9 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 12 Bread » 3 hours 30 14 10
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
  • White flour
71 ± 7 101 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 30 13 9
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
  • White flour
71 102 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 14 10
Jenkins DJA,Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: a new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes.
Diabetologia 1983; 24:257−64.
Mean of 6 studies
70 ± 0 101 ± 0 30 14 10
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
White-wheat-flour bread, hard, toasted
Italy
73 104 ± 5 Type 2 Diabetic » 17 Glucose » 3 hours 30 15 11
Giacco R, Brighenti F, Parillo M, et al.
Characteristics of some wheat−based foods of the Italian diet in relation to their influence on postprandial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Br J Nutr 2001; 85:33−40.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
White-wheat-flour flatbread
Sweden
79 113 ± 13 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 16 13
Liljeberg HG, Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IM.
Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1996; 126:458−66.
Breads » White Resistant Starch-enriched Bread » Whole-meal (whole-wheat) wheat-flour bread
  • Whole-meal flour
52 74 ± 15 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 6
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Lee R, Wong GS, Josse R.
Glycemic response to wheat products: reduced response to pasta but no effect of fiber.
Diabetes Care 1983; 6:155−9.
  • Whole-meal flour
64 92 ± 11 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Jenkins DJA, Wesson V, Wolever TMS, et al.
Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycemic response.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 297:958−60.
  • Whole-meal flour
65 93 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified 30 12 8
Otto H, Niklas L.
Differences d’action sur la glycemie d’aliments contenant des hydrated de carbone: consequences pour le traitment dietetique du diabete sucre. (Differences in the action of foods containing carbohydrates on blood glucose levels: implications for the dietetic treatment of diabetes mellitus.)
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. Starchy foods and glycemic index.
Diabetes Care 1988; 11:149−59.
  • Whole-meal flour
67 95 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Whole-meal flour
67 96 ± 5 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
  • Whole-meal flour
69 98 ± 5 Type 1 Diabetic » 5 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Whole-meal flour
71 102 ± 6 Type 2 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 12 8
Jenkins DJA,Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: a new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes.
Diabetologia 1983; 24:257−64.
  • Whole-meal flour
72 ± 6 103 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours 30 12 8
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al.
Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362−6.
  • Whole-meal flour
73 104 Type 2 Diabetic » 8 Glucose » 3 hours 30 14 10
Krezowski PA, Nuttal FQ, Gannon MC, et al.
Insulin and glucose responses to various starch−containing foods in type II diabetic subjects.
Diabetes Care 1987; 10:205−12.
  • Whole-meal flour
75 ± 9 107 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 30 13 9
Walker ARP, Walker BF.
Glycaemic index of South African foods determined in rural blacks—a population at low risk of diabetes.
Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1984; 38C:215−22.
  • Whole-meal flour
    | Australia
77 ± 9 110 Healthy » 8 Glucose » 2 hours 30 12 9
Ross SW, Brand JC, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS.
Glycemic index of processed wheat products.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46:631−5.
  • Whole-meal flour
    | Australia
78 ± 16 111 Healthy » 7 Glucose » 2 hours 30 12 9
Brand JC, Foster KA, Crossman S, Truswell AS.
The glycaemic and insulin indices of realistic meals and rye breads tested in healthy subjects.
Diabetes Nutr Metab 1990; 3:137−42.
  • Whole-meal flour
87 124 ± 40 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 2.5 hours 30 13 11
Ayuo PO, Ettyang GA.
Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non−insulin dependent diabetic subjects.
East Afr Med J 1996; 73:782−5.
Mean of 13 studies
71 ± 2 101 ± 3 30 13 9
Breads » Barley Breads » Barley Flour Breads »
Whole-meal barley bread, flat, thin, soft (50% regular barley flour, 50% high-fiber barley flour)
Sweden
50 71 ± 11 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 15 7
Liljeberg HG, Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IM.
Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1996; 126:458−66.
Breads » Barley Breads » Barley Flour Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour (80%) bread (20% white-wheat flour)
Sweden
67 95 ± 15 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours 30 20 13
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Björck I.
Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:561−75.
Breads » Barley Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour bread (used as reference for the 5 breads below)9
Sweden
70 100 Healthy » 11 Whole-meal barley bread » 2 hours 30 20 14
Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME.
Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:1503−11.
Breads » Barley Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour bread with higher dose sodium propionate9
Sweden
57 82 Healthy » 11 Whole-meal barley bread » 2 hours 30 19 11
Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME.
Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:1503−11.
Breads » Barley Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour bread with lactic acid9
Sweden
66 94 Healthy » 11 Whole-meal barley bread » 2 hours 30 19 12
Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME.
Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:1503−11.
Breads » Barley Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour bread with sodium propionate9
Sweden
65 93 Healthy » 11 Whole-meal barley bread » 2 hours 30 20 13
Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME.
Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:1503−11.
Breads » Barley Breads »
Whole-meal barley flour bread with sourdough (lactic acid)9
Sweden
53 76 Healthy » 11 Whole-meal barley bread » 2 hours 30 20 10
Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME.
Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.
J Nutr 1995; 125:1503−11.
Breads » Rye Bread » Whole-meal rye bread
  • Whole-meal rye bread
41 58 Type 2 Diabetic » number not specified Glucose » time not specified
Schauberger G, Brinck UC, Guldner G, Spaethe R, Niklas L, Otto H.
Exchange of carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose.
Cited by: Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Josse RG, Wong GS. The glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods.
Lancet 1984;1:388−91.
  • Whole-meal rye bread
62 89 ± 6 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 14 Bread » 3 hours
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, et al.
Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.
Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:516−20.
  • Whole-meal rye bread
63 90 ± 7 Type 2 Diabetic » 9 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
  • Whole-meal rye bread
66 94 ± 10 Type 1 Diabetic » 6 Bread » 3 hours
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R.
The glycemic index: similarity of values derived in insulin−dependent and non−insulin dependent diabetic patients.
J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6:295−305.
Mean of 4 studies
58 ± 6 83 ± 8 30 14 8
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread »
Whole-meal spelt wheat bread6
Slovenia
63 91 Healthy » 6 Bread » 3 hours 30 19 12
Skrabanja V, Kova B, Golob T, et al.
Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.
J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:497−500.
Breads » White Resistant Starch-enriched Bread »
Whole-meal Turkish bread
Turkey
49 70 Type 2 Diabetic » 52
healthy » 31
Glucose » 2 hours 30 16 8
Donduran S, Hamulu F, Çetinkalp S, Çolak B, Horozoglu N, Tüzün M.
Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.
Eating Weight Disord 1999; 4:203−6.
Breads » Specialty Wheat Breads »
Whole-wheat snack bread
Ryvita Company Ltd | Poole, Dorset | UK
74 105 ± 8 Type 1 and 2 Diabetic » 11 Bread » 3 hours 30 22 16
Wolever TMS, Katzman−Relle L, Jenkins AL, et al.
Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes.
Nutr Res 1994; 14:651−69.
Breads » Spelt Wheat Bread » Wonder, enriched white bread
71 ± 9 101 ± 13 Healthy » 10 Bread » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations4
72 ± 4 103 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations4
77 ± 3 110 Healthy » 10 Glucose » 2 hours
Unpublished Observations4
Mean of 3 studies
Interstate Brands Companies | Kansas City, Missouri | USA
73 ± 2 105 ± 3 30 14 10
Breads » White Resistant Starch-enriched Bread »
Wonderwhite
Buttercup Bakeries | Moorebank | Australia
80 ± 8 114 Healthy » 8 Bread » 2 hours 30 14 11
Brand−Miller J, Bell L, Denning K, Browne D.
In search of more low glycaemic index foods.
Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1995; 19:177 (abstr).
  1. NS (Non Specific), not specified; type 1 and type 2, subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; AUC (Area Under the Curve). Serving sizes in grams unless specified otherwise.
  2. x ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean). Two GI vlaues are shown for each food−one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.
  3. Estimated by multiplying the food’s listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.
  4. Human Nutrition Unit (Sydney University, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995–2002.
  5. V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company, Le Plessis-Robinson, France), unpublished observations, 1996–2000.
  6. GI calculated by using a mathematical formula based on results from an in vitro starch hydrolysis assay.
  7. Both the test food and the reference food contained 100 g carbohydrate.
  8. Both the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate.
  9. GI calculated from the AUC for glucose.
  10. Impaired glucose tolerance.
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